Dopamine and serotonin pathways - Nucleus accumbens - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

You have noticed that your baby does not behave like other babies? Early symptoms of autism and early intervention are key factors to the prevention of

Peter Wu | Substantia Nigra (Figure 1), 2013 | Air-dry clay, India ink, mounted on linen and wood

Peter Wu - Substantia Nigra (Figure 2013 - Air-dry clay, India ink, mounted on linen and wood

Wikipedia.org/ Substantia Nigra-- is a brain structure located in the mesencephalon (midbrain) that plays an important role in reward, addiction, and movement. Substantia nigra is Latin for "black substance", reflecting the fact that parts of the substantia nigra appear darker than neighboring areas due to high levels of neuromelanin in dopaminergic neurons

Parkinson's and PEMF. PEMF assists neurological disorders such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s because it stimulates neurons and causes brain cells to return to normal functioning frequencies.

Read this?  Birth, Life and Death of Dopaminergic Neurons in the Substantia Nigra - http://www.buypdfbooks.com/shop/medicine/birth-life-and-death-of-dopaminergic-neurons-in-the-substantia-nigra/ #EspositoEnnioDiGiovanniGiuseppeDiMatteoVincenzo, #Medicine, #SpringerVienna

Birth, Life and Death of Dopaminergic Neurons in the Substantia Nigra - Buy PDF Books

CSF pathways and cisterns. Very good csf flow explanations. Lots of diagrams

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is the clear fluid that surrounds the spinal cord and brain. Faulty CSF flow may play a major role in many neurological diseases and Chiari formations.

Ubiquitin (left panel) and α-synuclein (right panel) staining of the index patient of family DR246 in regions of substantia nigra (A, B), locus coeruleus (C, D), cingulate gyrus (E, F), superior temporal gyrus (G, H), superior parietal lobe (I, J) and hippocampus (K, L) reveal numerous Lewy body inclusions. In (B), an inset shows three intracellular inclusions in tegmentum. Scale bar represents 20 μm.

Ubiquitin (left panel) and α-synuclein (right panel) staining of the index patient of family DR246 in regions of substantia nigra (A, B), locus coeruleus (C, D), cingulate gyrus (E, F), superior temporal gyrus (G, H), superior parietal lobe (I, J) and hippocampus (K, L) reveal numerous Lewy body inclusions. In (B), an inset shows three intracellular inclusions in tegmentum. Scale bar represents 20 μm.

The panda sign in neuroimaging refers to the appearance of the midbrain, when the red nucleus and substantia nigra are surrounded by high T2 signal.  It is classically seen in Wilson disease, although whenever the white matter is diffusely abnormal in the region a similar appearance will be perceived such as in Japanese encephalitis.   http://radiopaedia.org/articles/panda-sign-of-the-midbrain

Panda sign: Wilson Disease Midbrain, Red Nucleus + Substantia Nigra with high may be seen whenever the WM is diffusely abnormal

Figure 3. Comparison of acoustically-induced firing changes in the substantia nigra reticulata (SNr) in GEPR-9s as compared to normal Sprague-Dawley rats.

Figure Comparison of acoustically-induced firing changes in the substantia nigra reticulata (SNr) in as compared to normal Sprague-Dawley rats.

Locations of the substantia nigra and the ventral tegmental area in the midbrain

Locations of the substantia nigra and the ventral tegmental area in the midbrain

Location of Substantia nigra

Function and Location of Substantia Nigra: A Diagrammatic Explanation

Parkinson's disease becomes apparent only after substantial loss (>60%) of the dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra. By this time there has already been widespread neural inclusion formation in the peripheral and central nervous system of patients with the disease, although this has only been recognized more recently. Degeneration in these widespread regions of the peripheral and central nervous system is now known to impact on disease symptoms, progression and treatment over time.

Parkinson's disease becomes apparent only after substantial loss (>60%) of the dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra. By this time there has already been widespread neural inclusion formation in the peripheral and central nervous system of patients with the disease, although this has only been recognized more recently. Degeneration in these widespread regions of the peripheral and central nervous system is now known to impact on disease symptoms, progression and treatment over time.

Image shows a the location of the substantia nigra in the brain.

A neuroimaging study reports dopamine activity does not reflect the number of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra of people with Parkinson's disease.

Pinterest
Search