How Vikings navigated the world Irene Berg Petersen. ScienceNordic October 2012 - With no access to modern navigation instruments, Vikings relied on birds, whales, celestial bodies, chants and rhymes to navigate the seas and discover new land.
The largest and most significant Viking hoard in more than 120 years has been discovered by a metal detectorist in SW Scotland. Among the 100 artifacts, dating from the & centuries, are high-quality gold & silver objects.
In the middle of the century the Vikings who had settled in Greenland encountered no less than ten years of harsh and cold winters and summers. The Norsemen, who were living as farmers, bid farewell to many of their cattle during that period.