Altasrif (13th C. Latin translation) by Albucasis, was a comprehensive and systematic review of surgery, referred to by physicians for 100s of years, and was translated into Latin, providing the basis for all future European surgical writings.It has over 50 surgical conditions, including bloodletting, midwifery, urinary diversion into the rectum, reduction mammoplasty, tracheotomy, craniotomy, and lithotomy. Illustrations of surgical instruments were first seen here
Museo de Badalona (Barcelona, España) | by Rafael del Pino. Medicine. 1.- Blenders, probes and spathomele or spatula probes, used to apply medicines, to observe inflammations or, once heated, to cauterize. 2.- Auricular probes that were used in minor operations or to auscultate the ears, to treat renal calculus and to clean up wounds.
Hand coloured illustration of surgical instruments, 1561
Beds were covered in pests and even bird droppings. - Just as the floors of a peasant’s house could make them vulnerable to infection and disease, roofs were often thread-bare and could hardly protect beds from bird droppings.